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English Learners in American Classrooms

English Learners in American Classrooms:

101 Questions, 101 Answers


By James Crawford &

Stephen Krashen

DiversityLearningK12, May 2015
6" x 9"; 128 pp
ISBN: 978-0-9847317-2-5

Paperback: $17.95

Kindle Edition: $9.95

Order at a 25% Discount – Apply Code: MWZERTW4


"This slim but pithy handbook is a rich and highly accessible resource for in-service and preservice teachers, parents, administrators, and laypeople interested in issues related to English language learners. ...
Crawford and Krashen address important issues in a straightforward and easily comprehensible way, steering clear of overly academic narratives, discipline-specific jargon, and in-text research citations."

--  Holly Hansen-Thomas
TESOL's Essential Teacher

Consider any question you may have about working with English language learners (ELLs), and it's quite likely you will find the answer in this indispensable book. Authors James Crawford and Stephen Krashen use a straightforward Q&A format to address educators' concerns in a concise and accessible way-everything from "What types of instructional programs are designed to address the needs of ELLs?" to "Do ELLs need to be taught phonics?" The book provides a state-of-the-art guide to the field, written to focus sharply on the major issues facing English language learners and the educators who work with them.

On the opening page, Crawford and Krashen state the essential aim of their book: "It's no secret that immigrants are transforming American classrooms. Or that increasing numbers of our students are ELLs ... a trend that poses unique challenges and opportunities for schools. How should educators respond?"

Read to suit your own needs-straight through from first question to last, or selectively to glean expert advice on issues of special interest. Either way, you'll close this book better equipped to make a difference for the ELLs in your classroom, school, and community.



La Palabra Justa

La Palabra Justa: An English-Spanish / Español-Inglés Glossary of Academic Vocabulary for Bilingual Teaching & Learning


Edited by
Sharon Adelman Reyes

Salvador Gabaldón
José Severo Morejón
DiversityLearningK12, April 2014
428 pp; $29.95
ISBN: 978-0-9847317-2-5

Order at a 25% Discount – Apply Code: P5TT9A77
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Language proficiency is multidimensional. While conversational skills are essential for social interaction, they are insufficient for most academic purposes. To be successful, teachers and students must acquire a firm and accurate command of subject-area vocabulary.

Even though a growing number of Americans speak Spanish at home, the United States has a severe shortage of professionals with fully developed academic skills in Spanish. This poses a special challenge for bilingual classrooms. Educators must be able to identify la palabra justa — the right word — in preparing or presenting a lesson, especially when providing content instruction and second-language input at the same time. And students must master academic terms to access advanced texts.

Recognizing an acute need, the editors of this volume brought together an international team of language teachers, teacher educators, and other bilingual professionals to create an English-Spanish / Español-Inglés glossary. La Palabra Justa features more than 24,000 entries covering the academic vocabulary needed in K-12 education.

Unlike a school dictionary, La Palabra Justa is a word-for-word glossary that offers a quick, user-friendly way to find translations of key terms in context. Sections include:




Engage the Creative Arts Engage the Creative Arts:
A Framework for Sheltering and Scaffolding Instruction for
English Language Learners

By Sharon Adelman Reyes
DiversityLearningK12, 2013, 8.5" x 11"; 152 pp; $26.95
ISBN: 978-0-9847317-3-2

Order at a 25% Discount – Apply Code: P5TT9A77

“With Engage the Creative Arts, we are entering a new era in language instruction. This book vastly expands the options for providing second language students with what they really need: input that is both comprehensible and highly interesting, so interesting that students forget it is in another language. It is sure to make teaching second languages not only much more pleasant than current approaches, but also much more effective.”

— Stephen Krashen, Professor Emeritus, University of Southern California, and Inventor of Sheltered Subject Matter Teaching


Meeting the needs of English language learners is one of the biggest challenges facing American schools today. Practical classroom strategies are essential, but it is also critical for educators to understand the rationale behind them: why a technique or methodology is working or not working for their students. Engage the Creative Arts is designed to build that understanding while also stimulating teachers’ imagination to help them invent new strategies of their own.

The book introduces the ENGAGE Framework for Sheltering and Scaffolding Language the Natural Way, an approach developed by Sharon Adelman Reyes based on more than 30 years of experience working with English language learners. It emphasizes methodologies that are grounded in a constructivist educational philosophy and a comprehensive theory of language acquisition. Rather than prescriptive, step-by-step recipes for instruction, it features strategies that are open-ended, creative, and best of all, engaging for students.

Engage the Creative Arts is full of hands-on, ready-to-use activities in dramatic arts, creative writing, music and rhythm, dance and movement, and visual arts, along with ideas for developing many more. But the ENGAGE Framework can be applied to any academic content area. And it is designed for all teachers who work with second language learners, whether in bilingual, English as a second language, dual immersion, heritage language, or world language classrooms.

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Diary of a Bilingual SchoolDiary of a Bilingual School:
How a Constructivist Curriculum, a Multicultural Perspective, and a Commitment to Dual Immersion Education Combined to Foster Fluent Bilingualism in Spanish- and English-Speaking Children

By Sharon Adelman Reyes and James Crawford
DiversityLearningK12, 2012; 6" x 9"; 136pp; $19.95
ISBN: 978-0-9847317-0-1
Order at a 25% Discount – Apply Code: P5TT9A77


" ... A wonderful resource that should serve as a reminder to everyone that
children love to learn. We just need to let them."

Hispanic Link Weekly Report


"A must read for parents and teachers who value bilingualism, biculturalism,
and positive identity construction for their children. Highly recommended."


"Refreshing and inspiring ... If you are interested in learning how educators and
parents can promote language acquisition, creating inventors who think creatively
and (gasp!) even achieve excellent results on academic tests, this is the book for you."

Creative Educator


"The beauty of Diary of a Bilingual School is that anyone can read this book and gain something from it. Parents of bilingual children will learn tools on how to help their children’s education thrive. Bilingual educators and administrators will gain insights and tips on how to create the best bilingual classroom experience possible. Bilingual expert and layman alike will appreciate the combination of theory, research and hands-on examples for making education better overall."

Multilingual Living Magazine


Dual immersion, a popular new way to cultivate bilingualism, is capturing the attention of parents and educators alike. By bringing together children from diverse backgrounds to learn each other’s languages in a natural setting, it has proved far more effective at cultivating fluency than traditional approaches.

But how do these programs actually work? What goes on in dual immersion classrooms? And what is it that makes them so effective?
Diary of a Bilingual School answers these questions with a unique mix of narratives and analysis. Depicting a year in the life of a second-grade classroom, it demonstrates what can happen when the instruction is bilingual and the curriculum is constructivist.

The book focuses on Chicago’s Inter-American Magnet School, one of the nation’s most acclaimed dual immersion programs, where children thrive in an environment that unlocks their intellectual curiosity and enthusiasm for learning. Simultaneously, without conscious effort, they become proficient in two languages and at home in a culture that differs from their own.

For those who want to discover the benefits of dual immersion for their children or for their students — or who want to learn more about child-centered approaches to teaching — Diary of a Bilingual School is a must.

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The Ultimate Teen Guide

By Tatyana Kleyn
(Scarecrow Press)


Examines the myths and realities of immigration, as well as the laws and policies that regulate it. This book for young adults explores issues including cultural clashes and discrimination, the debate on language, undocumented immigrants, and what it means to be an American.



Teaching in Two LanguagesTeaching in Two Languages:
A Guide for K12 Bilingual Educators

By Sharon Adelman Reyes
and Tatyana Kleyn

(Corwin Press)

Grounded in the latest research, this book provides classroom-ready strategies for balancing instruction in two languages and meeting the unique challenges of educating English language learners.

" ... A source of both inspiration and practical strategies for those who are educating our newest emergent bilingual citizens."
Sonia Nieto, University of Massachusetts



Constructivist Strategies for ELLsConstructivist Strategies for Teaching English Language Learners
By Sharon Adelman Reyes
and Trina Lynn Vallone

(Corwin Press)

This highly readable text eatures in-depth guidance on using constructivist methods with ELLs, including classroom examples, grade-level connections, and strategies that promote educational equity.

"An exciting journey inside classrooms where knowledgeable, caring, and advocacy-oriented teachers effectively engage English language learners through culturally and linguistically responsive pedagogy."


Carlos J. Ovando, Arizona State University


Summer ReadingSummer Reading: Program and Evidence
By Fay H. Shin and Stephen D. Krashen
(Allyn & Bacon)

Inspired by school-established summer reading camps designed to help struggling readers, the authors have built a research-based plan to guide schools in replicating this successful strategy.

"A potent message to administrators, classroom teachers, reading specialists, and librarians to design summer reading programs based on a balanced view of reading instruction.” 

– Sheila Bostrom, Brush Schools, Colorado



Educating English LearnersEducating English Learners: Language Diversity in the Classroom (5th ed.)
By James Crawford

This bestselling introduction to the field, widely used in foundations courses for ELL educators, incorporates the latest developments in research, pedagogy, legislation, and school reform. Includes an Online Resource Guide to stimulate further research, featuring links to legislation, court decisions, Congressional hearings, Census publications, historical documents, and ERIC digests. Now available as an eBook!


"By far the most complete, the most thorough,
and the most insightful volume of its kind
ever done in the field."

– Stephen Krashen



Hold Your Tongue Hold Your Tongue: Bilingualism and the Politics of English Only
By James Crawford

Follows the conflict over bilingualism from the halls of Congress to the streets of Miami to the classrooms of Lowell, Massachusetts, tracing the largely untold history of American responses to linguistic diversity and exposing the hidden agendas of today's English Only movement.


"A very important book that is more timely than ever." 
– Los Angeles Times

"Rich in anecdotes, majestic in its sweep and scope.  ... A ground-breaking study of the English Only movement."
– Henry Cisneros, former Secretary of Housing & Urban Development



Bilingual/ESL Classrooms Bilingual and ESL Classrooms
Teaching in Multicultural Contexts

(5th ed.)
By Carlos Ovando and Mary Carol Combs


A time-tested classic text (not an edited volume) that integrates the fields of ESL, bilingual, and multicultural education and provides rich examples of effective practices, along with a balanced overview of research on teaching in multilingual and multicultural contexts.


Advocating for English LearnersAdvocating for English Learners:
Selected Essays

By James Crawford
(Multilingual Matters)

Subjects include demographic change and its implications, American responses to language diversity, controversies over bilingual education, high-stakes testing and its impact on ELLs, and the precarious status of language rights in the USA.


"... Valuable insights on language policy in the education of immigrant children ... A compelling book to read."
Theresa Austin, Teachers College Record



101 Questions, 101 AnswersEnglish Learners in American Classrooms:
101 Questions, 101 Answers

By James Crawford and Stephen Krashen

A state-of-the-art guide to the field, using a straightforward Q&A format designed to focus sharply on the major issues, such as the research on effectiveness of various programs, and assessment and accountability for ELLs.


"A comprehensive overview ... Takes on and ruptures the myths that are perpetuated about language acquisition and linguistic-minority communities in the United States."
Pepe Leisyna, Book Smarts


Power of Reading The Power of Reading:
Insights from the Research

By Stephen D. Krashen
(Libraries Unlimited)

Continuing the case for free voluntary reading, this new, updated, and much-looked-for second edition explores new research done on the topic in the last 10 years as well as looking anew at some of the original research reviewed.

"An essential read. ... A book to share, discuss, argue about, and use as evidence for strong library book programs and [with] books that kids are interested in reading.”

– Teacher Librarian/Professional Reading



At War with DiversityAt War with Diversity:
U.S. Language Policy in an Age of Anxiety

By James Crawford

(Multilingual Matters)

Bilingualism is a reality that many Americans still find difficult to accept; hence the prominence of English-only activism in U.S. politics. This collection of essays analyzes the sources of the anti-bilingual movement, its changing directions, and its impact on education policy.


"A valuable book for any language-minority education professional who yearns for a better understanding of the political nature and the ongoing debates surrounding language policy in the United States." Harvard Educational Review



Language LoyaltiesLanguage Loyalties: A Source Book on the Official English Controversy
By James Crawford (ed.)

(University of Chicago Press)

This collection of 85 essays, speeches, reports, editorials, and other documents provides a comprehensive guide to the complex debate – fueled in the past decade – over whether English should be designated the official language of the United States. Topics include the historical roots of U.S. language policy, symbolic implications of language conflict, minority language rights, and language diversity in education.


"Truly superb. ... Belongs on the shelf of every person even mildly interested in the political struggle over language."
Sanford Levinson, The Nation


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